In recent decades, women’s entry into the labor market has grown rapidly; however, their advancement in some spheres, such as the corporate world, has been slower. According to global data, the presidency of companies and top management is still mainly in the hands of men, an obviously unequal situation, considering the current conditions of women at the educational and social levels.  Female leadership can be present in multiple spheres of society, such as politics, science and business, which have historically been masculinized.

The reasons for this phenomenon, the scarce presence of female leadership either in Ibero-American countries or in the Latin American continent, are still not sufficiently clear. Explanations may range from psychological, social and cultural variables, to perhaps demographic factors. The purpose of this study is to address this problem by means of a literature review and data collection, which gives an account of the current situation of women in the labor market in the selected countries. The purpose of this study is to analyze the circumstances that have prevented them from occupying high positions in companies in similar proportions to men, and to better understand the context of female leadership, in order to intervene favorably in the promotion of equity.